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Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The president faces the daunting task of rebuilding a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, the OBASANJO administration must defuse longstanding ethnic and religious tensions, if it is to build a sound foundation for economic growth and political stability. Despite some irregularities, the April 2003 elections marked the first civilian transfer of power in Nigeria's history.
Geography Nigeria
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates:
10 00 N, 8 00 E
Map references:
total: 923,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
853 km
Maritime claims - as described in UNCLOS 1982 (see Notes and Definitions):
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 30.96%
permanent crops: 2.79%
other: 66.25% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
2,330 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
periodic droughts; flooding
Environment - current issues:
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
People Nigeria
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 43.4% (male 29,985,427; female 29,637,684)
15-64 years: 53.7% (male 37,502,756; female 36,205,442)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 1,944,260; female 1,977,564) (2004 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.1 years
male: 18.2 years
female: 17.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.45% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
38.24 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
13.99 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 70.49 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 67.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 73.55 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.49 years
male: 50.35 years
female: 50.63 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.32 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
5.8% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
3.5 million (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
170,000 (2001 est.)
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups:
Nigeria, which is Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68%
male: 75.7%
female: 60.6% (2003 est.)
Government Nigeria
Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
Government type:
republic transitioning from military to civilian rule
Abuja; note - on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially transferred from Lagos to Abuja; most federal government offices have now made the move to Abuja
Administrative divisions:
36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
1 October 1960 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
new constitution adopted May 1999
Legal system:
based on English common law, Islamic Shariah law (only in some northern states), and traditional law
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president is elected by popular vote for no more than two four-year terms; election last held 19 April 2003 (next to be held NA 2007)
election results: Olusegun OBASANJO elected president; percent of vote - Olusegun OBASANJO (PDP) 61.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI (ANPP) 31.2%, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu OJUKWU (APGA) 3.3%, other 3.6%
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of Senate (107 seats, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (346 seats, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 12 April 2003 (next to be held NA 2007); House of Representatives - last held 12 April 2003 (next to be held NA 2007)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDP 53.6%, ANPP 27.9%, AD 9.7%; seats by party - PDP 73, ANPP 28, AD 6; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDP 54.5%, ANPP 27.4%, AD 9.3%, other 8.8%; seats by party - PDP 213, ANPP 95, AD 31, other 7; note - two constituencies are not reported
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Democracy or AD [Alhaji Adamu ABDULKADIR]; All Nigeria Peoples' Party or ANPP [Don ETIEBET]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Chekwas OKORIE]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Audu OGBEH]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [Saleh JAMBO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC [Adams OSHIOMOLE]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jibril Muhammad AMINU
consulate(s) general: Atlanta and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 775-1385
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Howard Franklin JETER
embassy: 7 Mambilla Drive, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos
telephone: [234] (9) 523-0916/0906/5857/2235/2205
FAX: [234] (9) 523-0353
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green
Economy Nigeria
Economy - overview:
Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, is undertaking some reforms under the new civilian administration. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth - Nigeria is Africa's most populous country - and the country, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. The government has lacked the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. During 2003, however, the government deregulated fuel prices and announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries. GDP growth probably will rise marginally in 2004, led by oil and natural gas exports.
purchasing power parity - $110.8 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.4% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $800 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 41.2%
industry: 15.7%
services: 43.1% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
60% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 40.8% (1996-97)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
50.6 (1996-97)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.7% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
66 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 70%, industry 10%, services 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
28% (1992 est.)
revenues: $3.4 billion
expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
Industrial production growth rate:
1.2% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
15.67 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 61.9%
hydro: 38.1%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
14.55 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
20 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
2.256 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
275,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Oil - imports:
Oil - proved reserves:
27 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
15.68 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
7.85 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
7.83 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
4.007 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Agriculture - products:
cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
$21.8 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports - partners:
US 33.2%, Spain 7.4%, Brazil 6.4%, Indonesia 6%, France 5.7%, India 4.8%, Japan 4% (2002)
$14.54 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners:
UK 9.5%, US 9.4%, China 9.3%, France 8.7%, Germany 6.5%, South Korea 6.1%, Netherlands 5.2%, Italy 4.7%, Brazil 4.5% (2002)
Debt - external:
$30.9 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
IMF $1 billion (2000)
naira (NGN)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
nairas per US dollar - 129.22 (2003), 120.58 (2002), 111.23 (2001), 101.7 (2000), 92.34 (1999)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Nigeria
Telephones - main lines in use:
702,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1,607,900 (2002)
Telephone system:
general assessment: an inadequate system, further limited by poor maintenance; major expansion is required and a start has been made
domestic: intercity traffic is carried by coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, a domestic communications satellite system with 19 earth stations, and a coastal submarine cable; mobile cellular facilities and the Internet are available
international: country code - 234; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)
23.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2002)
6.9 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
1,030 (2002)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
11 (2000)
Internet users:
420,000 (2002)
Transportation Nigeria
total: 3,557 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge
standard gauge: 52 km 1.435-m gauge (2002)
total: 194,394 km
paved: 60,068 km (including 1,194 km of expressways)
unpaved: 134,326 km (1999 est.)
8,575 km
note: consisting of the Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks
condensate 105 km; gas 1,660 km; oil 3,634 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Calabar, Lagos, Onne, Port Harcourt, Sapele, Warri
Merchant marine:
total: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 327,808 GRT/608,076 DWT
foreign-owned: Norway 2, Pakistan 1, Togo 1, United States 1
registered in other countries: 26 (2003 est.)
by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 5, petroleum tanker 30, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1
70 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (2003 est.)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 34
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 18 (2003 est.)
1 (2003 est.)
Military Nigeria
Military branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 32,665,407 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 18,763,229 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 1,452,231 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$469.8 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
0.9% (2003)
Transnational Issues Nigeria
Disputes - international:
ICJ ruled in 2002 on the entire Cameroon-Nigeria land and maritime boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced with demarcation in less-contested sections of the boundary, starting in Lake Chad in the north; Nigeria initially rejected cession of the Bakasi Peninsula; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision, the unresolved Bakasi allocation, and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; several villages along the Okpara River are in dispute with Benin; Lake Chad Commission continues to urge signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region, which remains the site of armed clashes among local populations and militias
Illicit drugs:
a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; safehaven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity, remains on Financial Action Task Force Non-Cooperative Countries and Territories List for continued failure to address deficiencies in money-laundering control regime