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Indonesia is the world's largest archipelago; it achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Current issues include: alleviating widespread poverty, preventing terrorism, effecting a transition to a popularly-elected government after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing reforms of the banking sector, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, and resolving separatist pressures in Aceh and Papua.
Geography Indonesia
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references:
Southeast Asia
total: 1,919,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 2,830 km
border countries: East Timor 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
54,716 km
Maritime claims - as described in UNCLOS 1982 (see Notes and Definitions):
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:
arable land: 9.9%
permanent crops: 7.2%
other: 82.9% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
48,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
archipelago of more than 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
People Indonesia
238,452,952 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 29.4% (male 35,635,790; female 34,416,854)
15-64 years: 65.5% (male 78,097,767; female 78,147,909)
65 years and over: 5.1% (male 5,308,986; female 6,845,646) (2004 est.)
Median age:
total: 26.1 years
male: 25.7 years
female: 26.6 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.49% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
21.11 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
6.26 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 36.82 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 42.09 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.26 years
male: 66.84 years
female: 71.8 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.47 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
120,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
4,600 (2001 est.)
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups:
Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%
Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.5%
male: 92.9%
female: 84.1% (2003 est.)
Government Indonesia
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies
local short form: Indonesia
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
27 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357 districts (regencies) have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
note: following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for independence that was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia's national legislature, the name Timor Leste (East Timor) was adopted as the name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur; East Timor gained its formal independence on 20 May 2002
17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch:
chief of state: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president previously were elected separately by the People's Consultative Assembly or MPR for five-year terms; next election to be held 5 July 2004; in accordance with constitutional changes, the election of the president and vice president will be by direct vote of the citizenry
note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) plus 195 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to approve broad outlines of national policy and also has yearly meetings to consider constitutional and legislative changes; constitutional amendments adopted in 2001 and 2002 provide for the MPR to be restructured in 2004 and to consist entirely of popularly-elected members who will be in the DPR and the new House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD); the MPR will no longer formulate national policy
election results: MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri elected president, receiving 591 votes in favor (91 abstentions); Hamzah HAZ elected vice president, receiving 340 votes in favor (237 against)
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members serve five-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%, PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%, PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%, PAN 6.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - Golkar 128, PDI-P 109, PPP 58, PD 57, PKB 52, PAN 52, PKS 45, others 49
note: because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the number of votes received by parties
elections: last held 5 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature); note - the Supreme Court is preparing to assume administrative responsibility for the lower court system, currently run by the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; a separate Constitutional Court was invested by the president on 16 August 2003
Political parties and leaders:
Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Democratic Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO, chairman]; Functional Groups or Golkar [Akbar TANDJUNG, general chairman]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Alwi SHIHAB, chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Hidayat NUR WAHID, chairman]; United Development Party or PPP [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador SOEMADI Brotodiningrat
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph L. BOYCE
embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 385-7189
consulate(s) general: Surabaya
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
Economy Indonesia
Economy - overview:
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, faces economic development problems stemming from recent acts of terrorism, unequal resource distribution among regions, endemic corruption, the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes, weaknesses in the banking system, and a generally poor climate for foreign investment. Indonesia withdrew from its IMF program at the end of 2003, but issued a "White Paper" that commits the government to maintaining fundamentally sound macroeconomic policies previously established under IMF guidelines. Investors, however, continued to face a host of on-the-ground microeconomic problems and an inadequate judicial system. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, building up the confidence of international and domestic investors, and strong global economic growth.
purchasing power parity - $758.1 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $3,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 15.9%
industry: 42.1%
services: 42% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
27% (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.7% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
37 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.9% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
100.5 million (2002)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10.5% (2003 est.)
revenues: $39 billion
expenditures: $43 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003 est.)
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
3.6% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
95.78 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 86.9%
hydro: 10.5%
other: 2.6% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
89.08 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
1.451 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
1.045 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Oil - imports:
Oil - proved reserves:
7.083 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
69 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
36.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
32.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.549 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Agriculture - products:
rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs
$63.89 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners:
Japan 21.1%, US 13.2%, Singapore 9.4%, South Korea 7.2%, China 5.1% (2002)
$40.22 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Japan 14.1%, Singapore 13.1%, US 8.5%, China 7.8%, South Korea 5.3%, Australia 5.1% (2002)
Debt - external:
$132.9 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$43 billion Indonesia finished its IMF program in December 2003 but still receives bilateral aid through the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), which pledged $2.8 billion in grants and loans for 2004. (2003 est.)
Indonesian rupiah (IDR)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 8,577.13 (2003), 9,311.19 (2002), 10,260.8 (2001), 8,421.77 (2000), 7,855.15 (1999)
Fiscal year:
calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March, but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year
Communications Indonesia
Telephones - main lines in use:
7.75 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
11.7 million (2002)
Telephone system:
general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
international: country code - 62; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
31.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
41 (1999)
13.75 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
61,279 (2002)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
24 (2000)
Internet users:
8 million (2002)
Transportation Indonesia
total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2002)
total: 342,700 km
paved: 158,670 km
unpaved: 184,030 km (1999 est.)
21,579 km total
note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km
condensate 672 km; condensate/gas 125 km; gas 8,183 km; oil 7,429 km; oil/gas/water 66 km; refined products 1,329 km; water 72 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Makassar, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya
Merchant marine:
total: 718 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,192,847 GRT/4,319,739 DWT
by type: bulk 47, cargo 398, chemical tanker 13, container 57, liquefied gas 6, livestock carrier 1, passenger 10, passenger/cargo 13, petroleum tanker 128, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea/passenger 9, specialized tanker 12, vehicle carrier 7
registered in other countries: 109 (2003 est.)
foreign-owned: France 1, Germany 1, Greece 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 2, Japan 3, Malaysia 1, Monaco 2, Panama 1, Philippines 2, Singapore 12, Switzerland 1, United Kingdom 2, United States 1
661 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 154
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 49
under 914 m: 44 (2003 est.)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 44
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 507
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
under 914 m: 478 (2003 est.)
914 to 1,523 m: 23
22 (2003 est.)
Military Indonesia
Military branches:
Indonesia Armed Forces (TNI): Army (TNI-AD), Navy (TNI-AL, including Marines, Naval Air arm), Air Force (TNI-AU)
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 66,458,805 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 38,728,029 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 2,196,424 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$1 billion (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.3% (FY98)
Transnational Issues Indonesia
Disputes - international:
East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey and delimit land boundary, but several sections of the boundary remain unresolved; Indonesia and East Timor contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which hinders a decision on a southern maritime boundary; numbers of East Timor refugees in Indonesia refuse repatriation; the Australia-East Timor 1999 maritime delimitation establishes partial maritime boundaries over part of the Timor Gap, but temporary resource-sharing agreements over an unreconciled area hamper creation of a shared maritime boundary with Indonesia; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesian secessionists, squatters and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin