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South Africa


After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (the Boers) trekked north to found their own republics. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Boers resisted British encroachments, but were defeated in the Boer War (1899-1902). The resulting Union of South Africa operated under a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races. The 1990s brought an end to apartheid politically and ushered in black majority rule.
Geography South Africa
Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Geographic coordinates:
29 00 S, 24 00 E
Map references:
total: 1,219,912 sq km
land: 1,219,912 sq km
note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 4,862 km
border countries: Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 967 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km
2,798 km
Maritime claims - as described in UNCLOS 1982 (see Notes and Definitions):
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to edge of the continental margin
contiguous zone: 24 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m
Natural resources:
gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
Land use:
arable land: 12.13%
permanent crops: 0.77%
other: 87.1% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
13,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
prolonged droughts
Environment - current issues:
lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland
People South Africa
note: South Africa took a census October 1996 that showed a population of 40,583,611 (after an official adjustment for a 6.8% underenumeration based on a postenumeration survey); estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 29.5% (male 6,337,468; female 6,254,925)
15-64 years: 65.3% (male 13,898,269; female 14,017,559)
65 years and over: 5.2% (male 886,801; female 1,323,508) (2004 est.)
Median age:
total: 24.7 years
male: 24.2 years
female: 25.3 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.25% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
18.38 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
20.54 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 62.18 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 58.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 65.87 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 44.19 years
male: 44.39 years
female: 43.98 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.18 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
20.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
5 million (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
360,000 (2001 est.)
noun: South African(s)
adjective: South African
Ethnic groups:
black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, Indian 2.6%
Christian 68% (includes most whites and Coloreds, about 60% of blacks and about 40% of Indians), Muslim 2%, Hindu 1.5% (60% of Indians), indigenous beliefs and animist 28.5%
11 official languages, including Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.4%
male: 87%
female: 85.7% (2003 est.)
Government South Africa
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form: South Africa
former: Union of South Africa
abbreviation: RSA
Government type:
Pretoria; note - Cape Town is the legislative center and Bloemfontein the judicial center
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North-West, Northern Cape, Western Cape
31 May 1910 (from UK); note - South Africa became a republic in 1961 following an October 1960 referendum
National holiday:
Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)
10 December 1996; this new constitution was certified by the Constitutional Court on 4 December 1996, was signed by then President MANDELA on 10 December 1996, and entered into effect on 3 February 1997; it is being implemented in phases
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 2 June 1999 (next to be held 24 April 2004)
head of government: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
election results: Thabo MBEKI elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation)
note: ANC-IFP is the governing coalition
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consisting of the National Assembly (400 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional representation to serve five-year terms) and the National Council of Provinces (90 seats, 10 members elected by each of the nine provincial legislatures for five-year terms; has special powers to protect regional interests, including the safeguarding of cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities); note - following the implementation of the new constitution on 3 February 1997 the former Senate was disbanded and replaced by the National Council of Provinces with essentially no change in membership and party affiliations, although the new institution's responsibilities have been changed somewhat by the new constitution
elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held 2 June 1999 (next to be held 14 April 2004)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 66.4%, DP 9.6%, IFP 8.6%, NNP 6.9%, UDM 3.4%, ACDP 1.4%, FF 0.8%, other 2.9%; seats by party - ANC 266, DP 38, IFP 34, NNP 28, UDM 14, ACDP 6, FF 3, other 11; National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ANC 61, NNP 17, FF 4, IFP 5, DP 3
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leaders:
African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE, president]; African National Congress or ANC [Thabo MBEKI, president]; Democratic Alliance (formed from the merger of the Democratic Party or DP and the New National Party or NNP; note - NNP split from DP in 2001) [Anthony LEON]; Freedom Front or FF [Dr. Pieter MULDER, president]; Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI, president]; New National Party or NNP [Marthinus VAN SCHALKWYK]; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC [Stanley MOGOBA, president]; United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]; South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]; South African National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]; note - COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the ANC
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Barbara Joyce Mosima MASEKELA
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607
telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400
chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron H. HUME
embassy: 877 Pretorius Street, Pretoria
mailing address: P. O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone: [27] (12) 342-1048
FAX: [27] (12) 342-2244
consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg
Flag description:
two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a central green band which splits into a horizontal Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side; the Y embraces a black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by narrow white stripes
Economy South Africa
Economy - overview:
South Africa is a middle-income, emerging market with an abundant supply of natural resources; well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors; a stock exchange that ranks among the 10 largest in the world; and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region. However, growth has not been strong enough to lower South Africa's high unemployment rate; and daunting economic problems remain from the apartheid era, especially poverty and lack of economic empowerment among the disadvantaged groups. High crime and HIV/AIDS infection rates also deter investment. South African economic policy is fiscally conservative, but pragmatic, focusing on targeting inflation and liberalizing trade as means to increase job growth and household income.
purchasing power parity - $456.7 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.9% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $10,700 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4.4%
industry: 28.9%
services: 66.7% (2001)
Population below poverty line:
50% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 45.9% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
59.3 (1993-94)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.9% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
17 million economically active (1998 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
37% (includes workers no longer looking for employment) (2001 est.)
revenues: $22.6 billion
expenditures: $24.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA billion (FY02/03)
mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs
Industrial production growth rate:
3% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
195.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 93.5%
hydro: 1.1%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 5.5%
Electricity - consumption:
181.2 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
6.91 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
6.2 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
196,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
460,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Oil - imports:
Oil - proved reserves:
7.84 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
1.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
1.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
14.16 million cu m (1 January 2002)
Agriculture - products:
corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products
$36.77 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment (1998 est.)
Exports - partners:
UK 12.8%, US 12.7%, Germany 9.3%, Japan 8.9%, Italy 5.8% (2002)
$33.89 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs (2000 est.)
Imports - partners:
Germany 15.5%, US 9.5%, UK 9.1%, Japan 5.8%, Saudi Arabia 5.3%, France 5%, China 4.9% (2002)
Debt - external:
$24.7 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$487.5 million (2000)
rand (ZAR)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
rand per US dollar - 7.56 (2003), 10.54 (2002), 8.61 (2001), 6.94 (2000), 6.11 (1999)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Communications South Africa
Telephones - main lines in use:
4.844 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
13.814 million (2002)
Telephone system:
general assessment: the system is the best developed and most modern in Africa
domestic: consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
international: country code - 27; 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 14, FM 347 (plus 243 repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)
17 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
556 (plus 144 network repeaters) (1997)
6 million (2000)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
198,853 (2002)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
150 (2001)
Internet users:
3.1 million (2002)
Transportation South Africa
total: 22,298 km
narrow gauge: 21,984 km 1.065-m gauge (10,436 km electrified); 314 km 0.610-m gauge
note: includes a 2,228 km commuter rail system (2002)
total: 362,099 km
paved: 73,506 km (including 2,032 km of expressways)
unpaved: 288,593 km (2000)
condensate 100 km; gas 741 km; oil 847 km; refined products 1,354 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Cape Town, Durban, East London, Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha
Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 31,505 GRT/37,091 DWT
foreign-owned: Denmark 1, Netherlands 1
registered in other countries: 7 (2003 est.)
by type: container 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 2
728 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 145
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 68
under 914 m: 11 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 583
1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
914 to 1,523 m: 299
under 914 m: 250 (2003 est.)
Military South Africa
Military branches:
South African National Defense Force: Army, Navy, Air Force, and Medical Services
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 11,924,500 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 7,247,696 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 471,221 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$2,653.4 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.7% (2003)
Military - note:
with the end of apartheid and the establishment of majority rule, former military, black homelands forces, and ex-opposition forces were integrated into the South African National Defense Force (SANDF); as of 2003 the integration process was considered complete
Transnational Issues South Africa
Disputes - international:
managed dispute with Namibia over the location of the boundary in the Orange River
Illicit drugs:
transshipment center for heroin, hashish, marijuana, and cocaine; cocaine consumption on the rise; world's largest market for illicit methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various east African countries; illicit cultivation of marijuana; attractive venue for money launderers given the increasing level of organized criminal and narcotics activity in the region